Kidney Problems

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the commonest of all infections. They may be community-acquired or nosocomial and may be defined as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in significant colony counts in the bladder or upper urinary tract with associated clinicopathological consequences

Common micro-organisms responsible for UTI are Gram-negative enterobacteria, E. coli being the most common in acute infections. However, klebsiella species and certain Gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria are encountered in hospital-acquired infections. The proteus group of organisms are commonly seen in the presence of calculus disease.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is seen following catheterisation or instrumentation of the urinary tract in hospitals.

Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones):

A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus (from the Latin ren, “kidney” and calculus, “pebble”) is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds). Kidney stones are a significant source of morbidity. 80% of those with kidney stones are men. Men most commonly experience their first episode between age 30–40 years, while for women the age at first presentation is somewhat later.

Kidney stones can form when urine contains too much of certain substances. These substances can create small crystals that become stones.

Chronic Renal Failure:

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a permanent and significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This occurs over months to several years. The progression of renal failure ultimately leads to uraemia which is a syndrome associated with end-products of nitrogen metabolism

Important causes of chronic renal failure.