Diabetes Mellitus (DM):
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria. Later complications include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and predisposition to infection. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose. Treatment is diet, exercise, and drugs that reduce glucose levels, including insulin and oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Prognosis varies with degree of glucose control.
There are 2 main categories of DM—type 1 and type 2, which can be distinguished by a combination of features
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of adult blindness.
There are no early symptoms or signs, but focal blurring, vitreous or retinal detachment, and partial or total vision loss eventually develop; rate of progression is highly variable. Diagnosis is by retinal examination. Strict glycemic control and early detection and treatment are critical to preventing vision loss.
Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of most chronic renal failures. The disease is usually asymptomatic until nephrotic syndrome or renal failure develops.
Diagnosis is by detection of urinary albumin. Urine albumin excretion 300 mg/day is considered for diagnosis. The albumin:creatinine ratio on a spot urine specimen or urinary albumin in a 24-h collection should be measured. A ratio 30 mg/g or an albumin concentration 30 to 300 mg/24 h signifies microalbuminuria and early diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetic neuropathy is the result of nerve ischemia due to microvascular disease, direct effects of hyperglycemia on neurons, and intracellular metabolic changes that impair nerve function.
Large-vessel atherosclerosis is a result of the hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemias, and hyperglycemia characteristic of DM. Manifestations are
- Angina pectoris and Myocardial Infarction(MI)
- Transient ischemic attacks and strokes
- Peripheral arterial disease
Diagnosis is by history and examination; the role of screening tests is evolving. Treatment is rigorous control of atherosclerotic risk factors, including normalization of plasma glucose, lipids, and BP, combined with smoking cessation.
Patients with poorly controlled DM are prone to bacterial and fungal infections because of adverse effects of hyperglycemia on granulocyte and T-cell function. Most common are mucocutaneous fungal infections (eg, oral and vaginal candidiasis) and bacterial foot infections (including osteomyelitis), which are typically exacerbated by lower extremity vascular insufficiency and diabetic neuropathy.
Diabetic foot complications (skin changes, ulceration, infection, gangrene) are common and are attributable to vascular disease, neuropathy, and relative immunosuppression.
Patients with DM have an increased risk of developing some rheumatologic diseases, including muscle infarction, carpal tunnel syndrome,
They may also develop ophthalmologic disease unrelated to diabetic retinopathy (eg, cataracts, glaucoma, corneal abrasions, optic neuropathy); hepatobiliary diseases (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [steatosis and steatohepatitis], cirrhosis, gallstones); and dermatologic disease (eg, tinea infections, lower-extremity ulcers, diabetic dermopathy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic systemic sclerosis, vitiligo, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans [a sign of insulin resistance]). Depression and dementia are also common.
Scope of Diabetes Mellitus Treatment at Homeocare International:
The advanced unique treatment of DM on the lines of Predicitive Homeopathic principles enables to yield the best results. Some cases of DM can be cured with advanced Homeopathic treatment and other cases can be given good relief from DM and the complications of DM can be curtailed very well.